Past Participle

In order to construct the present perfect, past perfect, or the present perfect continuous, we first need to learn to construct the past participle.

In Persian, the past participle is constructed by the addition of an [-e] to the past stem of the verbs whether the verb is simple, complex, or compound:

Past Participle

fallen oftāde افتاده
picked up bardāšte برداشته
said gofte گفته
seen dide دیده
eaten xorde خورده
lived zendegi زندگی کرده
gone rafte رفته

Past Stem

افتاد –
برداشتـ -
گفتـ -
دید -
خورد -
زندگی کرد –
رفت -


افتادن -
برداشتـن -
گفتـن -
دیدن -
خوردن –
زندگی کردن -
رفتن -

Numerous nouns and adjectives, as derivative of verbs, are constructed in this manner. Compare the following pairs:

to die mordan مردن
dead morde مرده
مرد مرده
mard-e morde, adjective
“A/the dead man.”

مرده را آوردند
morde rā āvardand, n.
“They brought the dead/the deceased.”

to pass gozaštan گذشتن
passed, bygone gozašte گذشته
روزگار گذشته
ruzgār-e gozašte, adjective
“The old days,” literally, “The (by)gone times.”

!گذشته را فراموش کن
gozašte rā farāmuš kon!, noun
“Forget the bygones/past!”