Verbal Endings

Verb conjugation in Persian is very regular and straight forward. There is no particular way of dealing with regular and irregular verbs in the present and past tenses. With pronouns all the personal endings are the same the present and past tense, except for the 3rd singular, which in the past tense does not take any ending.

In the present tense, every indicative verb is accompanied by the prepositional particle می.

I go. man mi-ravam من + می + (ریشهٔ فعل) + ـــَــ + ـم من می روم
You go. tó mi-ravi تو + می + (ریشهٔ فعل) + ـی تو می روی
He/she goes. u mi-ravad او + می + (ریشهٔ فعل) + ــَــ + ـد او می رود
We go. mā mi-ravim ما + می + (ریشهٔ فعل) + –یم ما می رویم
You go. šomā mi-ravid (plural) شما + می + (ریشهٔ فعل) + ـید شما می روید
They go. ānhā mi-ravand آنها + می + (ریشهٔ فعل) + ــَــ + ـند آنها می روند

The past stem of the verb is also the 3rd singular in the past as well (compare the past stem with the 3rd singular):


‘to go’

Past stem:

رفت) رفتـ)
‘have gone’


I went. man raftam من رفتَم
You went. tó rafti تو رفتی
He/she went u raft او رفت
We went. mā raftim ما رفتیم
You went. šomā raftid (plural) شما رفتید
They went. ānhā raftand آنها رفتند

In complex and compound verbs, the endings are placed at the end of the verbal element of the compound.


زندگی کردن
zendegi kardan
‘to live’

Past stem:

زندگی کرد
zendegi kard
‘to have lived’


I live man zendegi mikonam من زندگی می کنم
You live to zendegi mikoni (singular) تو زندگی می کنی
He/she lives u zendegi mikonad او زندگی می کند
We live mā zendegi mikonin ما زندگی می کنیم
You live šomā zendegi mikonid (plural) شما زندگی می کنید
They live ānhā zendegi mikonand (plural) آنها زندگی می کنند

The non-verbal element زندگی stays constant.

For the construction of the past stem, we just drop the infinitival endings –dan and –tan.

to go → went raftan → raft رفتن ← رفت
to do → done kardan → kard کردن ← کرد
to see → saw didan → did دیدن ← دید
to say/tell → said/told goftan → goft گفتن ← گفت

As we can see below, (1) the non-verbal element زندگی stays constant in the past tense as well; and (2) the 3rd singular takes no ending.

I lived man zendegi kardam من زندگی کردم
You lived to zendegi kardi تو زندگی کردی
He/she lived u zendegi kard او زندگی کرد
We lived mā zendegi kardim ما زندگی کردیم
We lived šomā zendegi kardid شما زندگی کردید
They lived ānhā zendegi kardand آنها زندگی کردند